Shareholder dispersion raises two related issues – the possible emergence of a control premium and how to protect minority shareholders from collusion between managers and controlling shareholders.
The growing size of firms requires an ever growing dispersion of shareholders and it becomes impossible or risky for a single investor to control 50% +1 of the votes. For instance, in 2015, the largest strategic shareholder (Mitchell’s Michael Kent) in the smallest cap constituent of the S&P 100 index - Devon Energy Corp – owned only 5.07% of the company, less than the 5.46% owned by The Vanguard Group which caters for retail investors. Moreover, the top 10 investors owned jointly less than 32%, while overseas investors from 30 different countries owned 28%.
So, since individual shareholders or groups of controlling shareholders often own less than 50% of the votes, it is normal that such control might be challenged by other investors, thus creating a market for company control. Of course, this requires the existence of an advantage in controlling a company sufficiently large to justify a so-called control premium.
Why should there be any advantage in being part of the control group if trading on insider information is forbidden and management has to treat all shareholders fairly? Finance literature usually explains such interest in terms of governance to discipline the incumbent management more efficiently than through internal control systems.
The assumption underlying such reasoning is that the influence it gives to controlling shareholders in terms of nominating and compensating managers following policies aligned to their interest is offset by a strong discipline preventing managers and controlling shareholders from engaging in tunneling and abuse of non-controlling shareholders.
Yet, even in large markets, like the USA where it is possible to have a lively takeover market, most of the takeover deals are driven by short term financial profits secured through buyout and arbitrage strategies, often at odds with the interest of long term investors. Moreover, even where the judiciary can be relied upon to prevent corporate raiders from expropriating the target’s resources there are still circumstances when some categories of investors can collude with management.
Elsewhere, Mendes (2011), I examined why trade investors may collude with managers to vote for star-like compensation, lowering the return to other investors which lack any self-interest market mechanism to prevent such predatory behavior. In the case of trade investors the materiality and scope for collusion depends on the possibilities to switch suppliers, their relative size and the greed of management. So, the question now is to discuss if it is possible to correct such inefficiency through regulation.
The simplest way to regulate is to impose limits on the ownership of major suppliers, to limit their rights or a combination of both. The first could be easily defined but it can be easily evaded. In particular, for suppliers of financial services, such limits could be easily circumvented by investing indirectly through investment funds managed by them.
Limiting the voting rights of trade investors who are major suppliers is probably a better solution. It does not disrupt arms-length trading relations and it is easily enforced. The only debatable issues would be about the classification of trade investor and the voting restrictions. Beyond the traditional restrictions on voting in related-party transactions, restrictions should cover voting for the election of management and their remuneration, but they could extend to voting in the governance and auditing committees.
Nevertheless, regulation always has its own costs, which cannot be disregarded lightly. In particular, discouraging trade investors may have its costs in terms of business intelligence and synergies.
Still, overall, I believe that easing takeover regulations and limiting the voting rights of trade investors are market perfecting policies, contributing to true market capitalism and the protection of minority shareholders.