The origins of capitalism go as far back as the XI century when Pope Gregory VII dictated the Dictatus Papae letters asserting that the deposal of an emperor was under the sole power of the pope and excommunicated Henry IV to reinforce the power of the Church. Unintentionally, he created the church-state with most of the legal and administrative institutions necessary for the subsequent commercial revolution. However, capitalism only overtook the feudal system in the early XIX century.
During this long period of eight centuries the following events represent important milestones: the Champagne fairs in France (XII-XIII centuries), the banking and Italian Renaissance (XV century), the Portuguese and Spanish discoveries connecting Europe with the rest of the world (XIV-XVI centuries), the establishment of chartered companies and stock exchanges (1555,1652), the rise of mercantilism (XVI-XVII centuries), the scientific, transport and industrial revolutions (XVI-XVII centuries), the enlightenment (XVIII), the publication of Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776) and the emergence of joint stock companies (XVIII century).
The creation of a commercial economy at the beginning of the XIII century, initially in the eastern Mediterranean, but quickly extended to the Italian city-states and the rest of Europe brought not only new products (spices, etc.) but new developments in business practices. For instance, the Champagne annual fairs revived the international trade between France and Italy and led to the development of merchant law (Lex mercatoria) and the creation of an international payment system based on bills of exchange.
The development of a new class of rich merchants and bankers in Northern Italy enabled the development of the double-entry accounting system and new banking techniques. This new class was essential for the development of the new trade made possible by the Portuguese and Spanish maritime voyages of discovery and the cultural renaissance in Italy.
Foremost in the development of capitalism was the expansion of credit. This was permitted by the progressive abandonment of the usury laws initiated with the English law of 1550. At the same time, another important progress in terms of company law was the establishment of Charted companies that latter led to the joint stock company.
Mercantilism, as an economic theory, is the opposite of market capitalism. It advocates the role of the state to protect infant industries and domestic markets while trying to control the main trading routes to secure a balance of payments surplus. Nevertheless, paradoxically, by promoting a new form of imperialism based more on trade supremacy than on pure conquest, it was initially a major driver of the international trade that preceded the industrial revolution. But, its nationalistic and protectionist policies led inevitably to wars and inefficiencies that could only be solved by the rise of free trade and the progressive abandonment of mercantilism. However, today, in countries like China and other transition economies, mercantilism is still evident in their new type of state capitalism.
The birth of the so-called scientific revolution can be said to have started with the publication in 1543 of Nicolaus Copernicus's De revolutionibus orbium coelestium or with Newton's 1687 Principia. The subsequent debate on rationalism and empiricism revived the interest in science and the progressive development of experimental research that led to the subsequent revolutions in transportation and manufacturing.
First, long-distance transportation of coal and other heavy materials between the mining regions and the cities became possible due to the canal mania in England between 1790 and 1810, which was driven by financial speculation. This was continued by a new railway mania that followed the design by George Stephenson of first steam locomotive in 1814. Meanwhile, based on Watt’s 1794 improved steam engine, steam-powered beam engines stimulated the construction of more sophisticated power looms and increased the scale of production in textile mills in the early years of the so-called first industrial revolution.
On a doctrinal level, the enlightenment philosophers promoted the idea that God expressed his purpose through the laws of nature so that the legitimacy of the ruler’s power was no longer granted by God but by the enlightened elected men. And, most importantly, replaced the heaven paradise by the pursuit of prosperity on earth.
Among them, Adam Smith’s 1776 Wealth of Nations refuted mercantilism and advocated free trade as the basis of classical economic theory.
Finally, the English Joint stock companies act of 1844 and the Limited liability act of 1855 completed the institutional requirements needed to consolidate capitalism as the dominant economic system.
By then the six basic pillars of capitalism – private property, the profit motive, free markets, the rule of law, joint stock companies and limited liability – had been largely adopted in Western countries and capitalism began its process of globalization.